How the Arabs, Sogdians and the Tang Dressed – a followup

This video intends to correct an earlier video, which had depicted the Arabs as wearing the Phrygian cap. It turns out that, the Tang dynasty had a similar looking head dress called the Pu-Tou, and so it was likely this that they mostly wore when attending the Tang court. The deeper we go down the rabbit hole, the curiouser and curiouser things get.
To view the Chinese video on the Tang dress, in particular how the Pu-Tou is worn:



  1. 15:23 The Sogdians are Iranian people, they are not Turkic. Please dont think that they were Farsi(Persian) its similiar to Serbs, Croats, Poles and Russians are all Slavs, but all Slavs are not Russian. So Sogdians, Sarmats, Alans, Mazandarani, Luri, Kurdi, Farsi(Persian) etc. all are Iranian but they're not Persian (Farsi). Persian (Farsi) name comes from Farsistan (Persis or Persepolis for westerners). In the southern parts of Central Asia (Trans – Sogdiana) majority of the land is desert. So the life there is harsh. You may easily imagine the relation between Turks and Sogdians like this; Sogdians are urbanites, living in the trading cities of Transogdiana (South Central Asia) and Turks are pastoral nomads. There's a Turkic saying (sort of proverb) for you, ''Tuzsuz aş, Türksüz Tat olmaz!'' meaning ''No proper meal without the salt or a Tat (Sogdian) without a Turk.'' Once Sogdians were a part of Scythians, later they've adopted sedentary life especially with the arrival and spread of Zoroastrian religion. Contrary to belief they've actually welcomed Turks into their lands, because in steppes there's no language, religion, ethnicity. If you're drawing a bow, riding a horse, living in a yurt and your beverage is made out of mare milk, you're just another nomad. Thats why all the steppe nomads were welcoming to each other. And surely Sogdians and Turks did and maybe still do see eachother as kin.

    PS: Today the true (ethnic, cultural and linguistic) descendants of Sogdians would be the Tajiks.

  2. 15:30 Thats not the original ''Islamic'' symbol Mel, thats Ay-Kün (Moon – Sun) symbol. Infact its a ''Tamga''. Check earlier Islamic flags, they all had Arabic writings on plain pastel colours. Ay-kün arrived and spread to middle east by Turks. I'm not saying these out of Pan-Turkism or anything. Actually ay-kün is not unique to Turks, you may check medieval and current flags of Mongolia, ay-kün tamga is there. And it is an important ''tamga'' for Mongols. So you may say its not islamic but rather steppe nomad symbol.

  3. @sneaker's corner, sogdians were not persian only, they were persianized turks who due to their political power, wanted to become distant from persians and started being called turks from 5-6th century

  4. Turks were not localized in west Asia until late 7 and early 8 and 9th century, they were prominent in Eastern europe and euroasia. Turks became more present in 10th century in west Asia.

  5. Sogdians were earlier known as saks and massagets who were distinguished by their hats. Karakalpaks were massagets whose name today means black hatted people.

  6. @Sneaker's Corner
    At the time of Tang Dynasty in China, kingdom of Sthanishvara was ruling north India and their capital was Kannauj. King Harshavardhan was a great king of Sthanishvara. My question is Did the Arab , Turks and Persian visit this kingdom ?

  7. I think what you noted as “Tayaye” outfit is actually Eastern Indo-European style. It is a style that can be found from Thrace, Dacia to Turfan and Khurasan of antiquity. Pointed hats and a felt caps were associated with Iranian steppe nomads particularly the Scythians and Dahae.

    That being said, it was also a mainstay of Iranian style up to the the Sassanid era as seen from their inscriptions and coins. I don’t think the Chinese depiction of “Tayaye” emissary in Sogdian garb should be interpreted as “Tayaye” as a west Asian group really mean anything other than the Arabs for a brief period of time adopted the style of their predecessors.

    The pointed hats are historically associated and possibly spread with the Yamnaya or the Indo-Europeans and can be found in various cultures from Iceland to Mongolia.

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